Here is a list of Various Toyota 4x4 systems from various Owners Manuals and Mechanical sources.
Toyota Transfer Case Terminology explained -
2Hi: Rear wheel drive only: Normal operation.
4Hi: 4 wheels driven: (Press red button on side of 4wd selector - Hilux/Surf models only). Indicator will illuminate in centre of dash when fully engaged. You may select/deselect this mode at speeds up to 100Kph. Must only be used on loose surfaces such as mud, snow etc.
4Low: 4 wheels driven, Lo-Ratio engaged: Select neutral on main gearbox, move 4wd selector lever fully back (position of button on side not important). Must only be used on loose surfaces such as deep mud, sharp inclines, descents etc where there is both a loose surface and a requirement for additional torque, lower speeds etc.
4Hi Locked: 4 wheels driven, centre differential locked: Move 4wd-selector lever fully back (position of button on side not important), 4 wheel Indicator and centre diff light will illuminate in centre of dash when fully engaged. You may select/deselect this mode at speeds up to 5Kph. Must only be used on loose surfaces such as mud, snow etc.
4Low Locked: 4 wheels driven, centre differential locked, Lo-Ratio engaged: 4 wheel Indicator and centre diff light will illuminate in centre of dash when fully engaged. Select neutral on main gearbox, move 4wd selector-lever fully back, push to the right and then forwards.
CRAWL; a four-wheel drive control system that operates like an off-road cruise control, automatically maintaining a low uniform vehicle speed using brakes and throttle.
MTABS - A newly developed ABS system, the multi-terrain anti-lock braking system (ABS).
KDDS - Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System, allows for greater wheel articulation. The Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS) technology was employed initially in the Lexus GX 470, and subsequently the 200 Series Toyota Land Cruiser. The system was invented and developed by Kinetic Pty Ltd, a small R&D company based in Dunsborough, Western Australia. It optimally adjusts front and rear stabilizers based on a set of interconnected hydraulic cylinders. The interconnection is made up of hydraulic piping and a control cylinder which is located at the frame rail. KDSS, which is fully mechanical, can disengage the stabilizer bars (the bars are jointed, allowing movement independent of one another). This system will not engage during normal driving conditions, when hydraulic pressure is equal. In off-road conditions, KDSS activates when it senses that a wheel has dropped.
The Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System was first available as an option on the model year 2004 Lexus GX 470, a sport utility vehicle that is only sold in the United States, and based roughly on the 120 Series Land Cruiser Prado. The system was also introduced in similar form on the 2008 Toyota Land Cruiser. For the 2008 Lexus LX 570, an electro-mechanical suspension was employed, retaining the function of the KDSS design but adding electronic components.
Rav 4 - Automatic transmission: STD I full-time all wheel drive. Electronically controlled multiplate clutch locking center differential. Optional Torsen limited slip rear differential. Early models have a C.DIFF AUTO button that, when depressed, prevents the center differential from locking. When no button is present (A540H transmission), the multiplate clutch always operates in AUTO mode. Manual transmission: Full-time all wheel drive with 50/50 torque split. Manually locking center differential via the C.DIFF LOCK button on the console. Optional Torsen limited slip rear differential.
Rav 4 II - Both automatic and manual transmissions have full-time all wheel drive with viscous coupling locking center differential. Optional Torsen limited slip rear differential.
Rav 4 III - Proactive automatic all wheel drive. Front wheel drive in normal conditions, torque transfer to rear via electronically-controlled multi-plate clutch. The clutch can be manually locked using the button on the console.
4Runner / Surf Import Mk1-3 - Selectable all wheel drive system (full-time all wheel drive system with 4x2 capability). VF3AM transfer case. Lever-operated 4Hi, 4Lo (2,48:1), and N modes. 4WD button engages and disengages the all wheel drive. Corporate 8-inch IFS front axle is engaged using Toyota's ADD (Automatically Disconnected Differential), which is similar to other companies' CAD systems. Electro-mechanically operated rear differential lock (optional) in 8-inch solid axle.
4Runner Mk4 - The optional 4WD systems were full-time on V8 models while "Multi-Mode" or part-time on V6 models, both systems used a lockable Torsen center differential. A new suspension system, X-Relative Absorber System (X-REAS), became standard on the Sport Edition and optional for SR5 and Limited models, a rear auto-leveling height adjustable air suspension is included with this option on Limited models. The X-REAS system links the dampers diagonally by means of hydraulic hoses and fluid using a mechanical center valve which reduces body roll during hard cornering. All 4runners were equipped with skid plates for the engine, transfer case, and fuel tank to prevent damage during off-roading. The Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC) system prevents the 4runner from rolling backwards on inclines and a Downhill Assist Control (DAC, 4WD only) modulates the brakes and throttle automatically without driver inputs for smooth hill descents at very low speeds, both electronic aids are standard on 4WD models. 2Hi, 4Hi, 4Low, Electronic Diff Locks.
Landcruiser 70 Series UK models / Import - Part Time 4 wheel drive. 2Hi, 4Hi, 4Low. Front & Rear locking differentials. or rear LSD. Live axles front and rear except on 78 series troop carrier which was on leaf springs on the rear axle.
Landcruiser 80 Series UK/Import - Full-time all wheel drive system with viscous coupling locking center differential. Center differential locked via push button. In low gear (2,49:1 ratio). Optional front and rear manually lockable differentials.
Landcruiser 90 Series UK/Import - Full time 4wd. Centre locking differential. 4hi, neutral, 4low. Rear LSD. Rear Locking differential as option.
Landcruiser 100 Series UK/Import - Full-time all wheel drive. Full-time two-speed four wheel drive system with manually (button) lockable differentials - center and rear (opt.) The case is similar to previous generation Land Cruisers.
Landcruiser 120 Series UK/Import - Full time 4wd system. Locking centre diff, 4hi, neutral, 4low. Rear LSD, Rear Locking differential optional.
Landcruiser 200 Series UK - Full-time all wheel drive system with dual range and 'Torsen' T3 (torque sensing) centre differential. Downhill Assist Control (DAC). Crawl control system. Duel range transfer case. Centre Locking differential. Rear locking differential optional.
Hilux Pickup Mk1-Mk8 - Part Time 4wd system. 2wd, 4Hi, 4Low. Rear Limited Slip Differential as standard. Rear Locking differential as optional. Manual transmission vehicles have a lever transfer case. On Mk 5 Hilux onwards the automatic Transmission Hiluxes have either lever transfer case levers or push button mounted switches on some imported models.
Hilux/Surf Mk1 - This is a part-time 4wd system. The vehicle is not fitted with a centre differential and therefore 4wd must never be used under normal conditions on surfaces with a high level of grip. Using 4wd on tarmac under normal condition will cause transmission wind-up and may result in damage to the drivetrain.
Hilux/Surf Mk2-Mk3 - The 3rd Gen Surf has a multi-mode 4wd system.
It may be used in 2wd Hi-ratio, driven by the rear wheels only, 4wd Hi-ratio with an open centre differential. 4wd Hi-ratio with the centre differential locked and 4wd Lo-Ratio with the centre differential locked.
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